A/A testing

A/A testing tests two identical pages against each other to ensure that there is no difference between control and variation versions and that the tool running the experiment is statistically fair.

A/B testing

A/B testing is a controlled experiment in which the 'control' A (original testing variable) and the B variation (a different version of the original testing variable) are tested against each other. The version that converts more recipients is considered “the winner.”

Above the fold

Above the fold describes the section of the web page before the user has to start scrolling, where the browser window ends. It typically gets more attention than content “below the fold.”

Average order value (AOV)

Average order value is a measure of the average purchase amount each time a customer places an order. The calculation is: divide total revenue from the website by the number of orders made.


Bayesian statistics

Bayesian statistics incorporate past knowledge of similar testing and experimentation (“prior probability”) and relies on both the former and current testing data to make a conclusion.

Behavioral targeting

Behavioral targeting uses visitor and customer website actions and behaviors on a website or app to customize personalized marketing messages.

Below the fold

Below the fold refers to the section that is visible to the website visitor only after they scroll in the browser. It gets less attention than the content “above the fold.”

Bounce rate

A bounce rate quantifies the percentage of website visitors that leave the page without clicking or interacting any portion of it. The formula is: single-page sessions divided by all sessions.

Bucket testing

Bucket testing, also referred to as A/B testing or split testing, is a method of testing a website control and variant to learn which one performs better based on predetermined metrics.

Buyer persona

A buyer persona is a fictionalized representation of a target audience segment. The persona details desires, challenges and other characteristics so messaging can be effectively targeted to them.


Call to action (CTA)

A call to action (CTA) is a clickable button, text or other web page or mobile app element that prompts the visitor to perform an action leading to a conversion.

Click map

A click map, which is a type of heatmap, shows you the elements on your web page or app that are most interacted with, as well as what’s not looked at. It identifies the most popular links as well as unclickable areas that users are ‘rage clicking.’

Click-through rate (CTR)

Click-through rate (CTR) is the total number of visitors that clicked on a web page, mobile app, online campaign, etc. The formula is: clicks ÷ impressions = CTR.

Client-side testing

Client-side testing refers to any type of testing such as A/B testing, multivariate or others that are conducted in the recipient's browser and not on the server-side.

Cognitive bias

Cognitive bias is the tendency for humans to process information through the filter of our own experience and preferences, leading to incorrect assumptions in the testing process.

Confidence interval

A confidence interval is a way to determine how much certainty there is with a measurement of a test, and is expressed as a percentage.


A conversion is when the website or app visitor performs the action that is desired. It can be a purchase or a step that the business considers important to the sales funnel.

Conversion funnel

A conversion funnel, or sales funnel, is the process of moving potential buyers towards purchasing your products or services. The five stages are: awareness, interest, desire and action.

Conversion rate optimization (CRO)

Conversion rate optimization is the process of improving a website or app through UX, performance or other methods to increase the number of visitors that perform an action that results in a conversion.

Conversion rate optimization tool

A conversion rate optimization tool collects quantitative and/or qualitative data about how visitors are using your website or app and identifies areas that may need improvement.

Customer acquisition cost (CAC)

Customer acquisition cost measures how much it costs to acquire a new customer. It includes sales and marketing, along with other expenses to persuade a shopper to make a purchase.

Customer experience

Customer experience (CX) is the holistic perception and feelings a customer has interacting with a brand across all touchpoints.

Customer journey map

A customer journey map is a visual representation of how your customer interacts with your brand. The five stages are awareness, consideration, purchase, retention and advocacy.

Customer lifetime value (CLV)

Customer lifetime value measures the total amount a customer is expected to spend during the time the customer is actively purchasing from your business.


Decision fatigue

Decision fatigue is when a person becomes tired after a long sequence of decision making on a website and their abilities start declining.

Digital experience intelligence (DXI)

Digital experience intelligence (DXI) collects real-time, AI-powered analytics on a website or mobile app, driving actionable insights that optimize engagement and conversions.


E-commerce conversion rate optimization (CRO)

E-commerce conversion rate optimization is the process of improving an e-commerce store through UX, performance or other methods to increase the number of visitors that result in a sales conversion.


Flicker effect

The flicker effect, also called flash of original content (FOOC), is when the control page of an A/B test is visible for a second before the variant appears on the screen.

Frequentist statistics

The frequentist statistics approach predicts the outcome of the test based on data from the current experiment only. A/B testing software typically uses the frequentist method.


Guardrail metric

A guardrail metric, also known as “counter metric” or “health metric,” is measured in testing to determine potential impact on other business objectives or variables in the company.


Headline testing

Headline testing is the process of creating multiple headline variations for a website, mobile app or other audience to test which one gets the most engagement.


A heatmap is a visual representation of what actions users are taking on your web pages, such as a click or tap, scrolling and elements they look at or ignore.


Heuristics is aimed at making faster decisions faster based on probability, through trial and error, historical data and other methods.


A hypothesis is a statement of a predicted outcome that can be tested by research to determine if the expectation is the true outcome.


Interaction map

An interaction map visually represents how users are clicking an, panning and zooming or taking other actions on your website or app. tracks how users to click, pan and zoom.


Landing page

A landing page is a standalone web page created for a visitor to “land” on for a specific campaign or goal. A landing page is often tested with different variables to optimize conversions.



A macro-conversion is when a website or mobile app visitor performs a key step in the sales funnel such as requesting a demo, getting a free trial or making a purchase.


A micro-conversion is when a website or mobile app visitor performs a secondary action lending to a smaller conversion in the funnel, such as downloading content or signing up for a newsletter.

Move map

A move map shows a user’s mouse movements on a web page. It provides insight into how a user interacts with your web page, seeing what areas attract attention and where struggles occur.

Multi-armed bandits

Multi-armed bandits dynamically shift A/B or other testing traffic to the variation(s) that perform better and reduce traffic to those variants that aren’t performing well.

Multivariate testing (MVT)

Multiple variate testing includes a webpage or app with several variables that are modified. It can determine which combination of the variations performs best out of all combinations.


P value

P-value, or probability value, is a statistical measurement that describes the probability that the data results are by random chance, compared to the null hypothesis.

Page speed

Page speed, or load time, refers to the time of the browser page request until it completes processing and displaying the page for the visitor. Factors include content type, device and other variables.


Personalization is customizing messages to a website or app visitor or customer, matching it with the person’s interests, behaviors and other factors influencing purchase potential.

Primary metric

A primary metric is the main metric that is measured in A/B or other testing. It is often linked to a KPI, overall CRO strategy and business objectives.

Purchase anxiety

Purchase anxiety is when a potential buyer doesn’t feel comfortable that they know enough about the business or product to make a decision to purchase.


Qualitative data

Qualitative data is narrative and descriptive data about behaviors, feelings and other data that can’t be measured or counted. Examples include user research, surveys and feedback forms.

Quantitative data

Quantitative data is data that is based on counted and numerical value. It is objective and provides a snapshot of data points, such as how many people visited a website or CTA clicks.


Scroll map

A scroll map, a form of a heatmap, is a visual representation of how far users scroll down your web page or mobile app. It can tell you the most and least viewed parts of your web page or mobile app.

Server-side A/B testing

Server-side A/B testing is rendered from the web server instead of the user side. This allows for more sophisticated experiments and more coding.

Session recording

Session recording, or session replay, records the session of website visitors and can be viewed to gain behavioral insights about the user’s experience.

Shopping cart abandonment

Shopping cart abandonment occurs when a potential buyer is in the check out process to purchase an item but leaves their shopping cart and the transaction isn’t completed.

Social proof

Social proof is when a potential buyer reduces their fear of buying through independent opinions of a product in reviews, testimonials, etc.

Split testing

Split testing is a variant of A/B testing. It is a randomized experiment with two variations of a page “competing” to see which one is the winner. The results determine which version showed the greatest improvement.

Statistical significance

Statistical significance is a measure used to determine whether test results are a result of chance or attributed to a specific cause and are statistically meaningful.


Testing hypothesis

A testing hypothesis is the prediction of a test. It includes what the controlled variant is, what is being changed and the optimized variant outcome.

Type 1 error

Type 1 error is when results of a test are confirmed as statistically significant, but were because of chance or unrelated factors of the test, and therefore null.

Type 2 error

Type 2 error is when a false null hypothesis, or false positive, is accepted and no test winner has been declared, rejecting the alternative hypothesis.


Urgency marketing

Urgency marketing is a conversion method to persuade potential buyers to purchase an item in the moment, using tactics like limited timeframes or scarcity.

User experience (UX)

UX is the overall experience a user has interacting with a brand’s website, mobile app or product. It includes factors like navigation, ease of use and other variables.

User feedback

User feedback is the collection of qualitative and quantitative data from your website or mobile app visitors to learn likes, dislikes and other opinions to make improvements.


Value proposition

A value proposition is a clear, succinct statement about a company or product’s benefits, differentiators and value it brings to customers to persuade them to buy.

Voice of customer

Voice of customer (VoC) is the process of gathering feedback about your customers’ experience and expectations on your website, app or other channels. It is usually in the form of a survey.